Course Content
Safety
S-1 General Safety Rules S-2 Effects of Electric Current S-3 On The Job S-4 Protective Clothing S-5 Ladders & Scaffolds S-6 Fires S-7 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters S-8 Grounding
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Unit 1 – Atomic Structure
Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to: List the principal parts of an atom State the law of charges Discuss the centripetal force  Discuses the differences between conductors & insulators Preview Electricity is the driving force that provides most of the power for the industrialized world. It is used to light houses, cook meals, heat and cool building, run electric motors, & supplies ignition for most automobiles in the world, 
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Electrical Theory Fundamentals
About Lesson

Resistors are essential components in electrical and electronic circuits that offer control over current flow and perform various functions. In this lesson, we will explore the practical applications of resistors in different areas. Let’s begin!

I. Current Limiting:

A. Overview:

  1. Resistors are commonly used to limit current flow in circuits and protect components from excessive currents.
  2. By introducing a resistor into a circuit, it acts as a “choke point” that restricts the current passing through.

B. Applications:

  1. LED (Light-Emitting Diode) circuits: Resistors are used to limit the current flowing through LEDs to prevent damage and ensure proper operation.
  2. Transistors and ICs (Integrated Circuits): Resistors are often used in series with these components to control the current passing through them and prevent overloading.

II. Voltage Division:

A. Overview:

  1. Voltage dividers are circuits that use resistors to create different voltage levels by dividing the total voltage across a circuit.
  2. The ratio of resistances determines the output voltage.

B. Applications:

  1. Analog-to-Digital Conversion: Voltage dividers are used in analog-to-digital converters to scale down input voltages to the range that can be processed by the converter.
  2. Sensor Circuits: Resistive voltage dividers are used with sensors, such as temperature or light sensors, to generate voltage levels proportional to the measured quantity.

III. Signal Conditioning:

A. Overview:

  1. Signal conditioning circuits prepare signals for further processing or transmission by modifying their characteristics.
  2. Resistors play a vital role in various signal conditioning applications.

B. Applications:

  1. Filters: Resistors are used in conjunction with capacitors and inductors to create filters that pass or attenuate specific frequency ranges in audio, radio, and communication circuits.
  2. Amplifiers: Resistors are used in amplifier circuits to set gain levels, biasing, and provide feedback.
  3. Wheatstone Bridge: A bridge circuit that uses resistors to measure unknown resistances or to detect small changes in resistance.

IV. Timing and Oscillators:

A. Overview:

  1. Timing circuits and oscillators rely on resistors to determine the time intervals or frequency of waveforms.

B. Applications:

  1. RC Circuits: Resistors and capacitors are used in RC circuits to control timing intervals and generate specific waveforms, such as square waves or exponential decay curves.
  2. 555 Timer Circuits: The popular 555 timer IC uses resistors and capacitors to generate precise timing intervals for various applications, including oscillators, pulse generation, and timers.

V. Miscellaneous Applications:

A. Overview:

  1. Resistors find application in various other areas of electronics.

B. Applications:

  1. Heating Elements: High-resistance wire-wound resistors are used as heating elements in applications like toasters, electric stoves, and space heaters.
  2. Snubber Circuits: Resistors are used in snubber circuits to absorb and dissipate excess energy from inductive loads or to suppress voltage spikes.
  3. Pull-up and Pull-down Resistors: These resistors are used to establish defined voltage levels in digital circuits, ensuring stable logic states.

Conclusion: Resistors have widespread applications in electrical and electronic circuits. From current limiting and voltage division to signal conditioning, timing, and various specialized uses, resistors play a crucial role in controlling and manipulating electrical parameters. Understanding the applications of resistors empowers engineers and


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